Copyright ©Mark Nelson, 2002. All rights reserved.
Chapter 7: Neurotransmitters and Their Release
What you need to know

(exam questions will be a drawn from this subset of material)

Who were Katz and Miledi?  (p. 157-158)

How is the amplitude of  the  presynaptic potential related to the amplitude of the postsynaptic response

How did Katz and Miledi manipulate the voltage amplitude in the presynaptic terminal?  (p. 158)

Does TTX have a direct effect on the ligand-gated channels on the postsynaptic side of the synapse?  (p. 158)

What is iontophoresis(p. 158-159)

What happens to synaptic transmission if external [Ca++] is reduced to zero?  (p. 158)

When does external [Ca++] need to be available in order for synaptic transmission to be successful?  (p. 158)

How do Ca++ ions enter the presynaptic terminal?  (p. 160)

What happens when Ca++ enters the presynaptic terminal?  (p. 160)

What normally keeps the internal Ca++ levels low in the presynaptic terminal?  (p. 160)

What is quantal release(p. 160-161)

What is a miniature end plate potential (mepp)(p. 161)

What happens when external  Mg++ is applied to a synapse?  (p. 161)

At the neuromuscular junction, about how many vesicles are released during a full-sized EPP?  (p. 161)

About how many neurotrasmitter molecules are in a single vesicle?  (p. 161)

What are the two main pools of synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic terminal.?  (p. 163-164)

What happens to vesicles in these two pools when Ca++ enters the presynaptic terminal?  (p. 164)

What molecule keeps vesicles in the storage pool locked in place?  (p. 164)

What are NSF, SNAP, v-SNARE, t-SNARE, VAMP, SNAP-25?  (p. 165-167)

Where do new vesicles come from?  (p. 169-170)

How do non-spiking neurons communicate?  (p. 170-171)

How does neurotransmitter get into the vesicles?  (p. 171-172)

What four criteria are used to establish a chemical as a neurotransmitter?  (p. 172-173)

What are the three main groups of neurotransmitter molecules?  (p. 173-175, Table 7-2)

What are some examples of neurotransmitters that don't fit into these categories?  (p. 175, Table 7-2)

Name three amino acid neurotransmitters; three amines,  and three peptide neurotransmitters.  (p. 175, Table 7-2)

Identify the transmitter released by: 1) adrenergic, 2) noradrenergic, 3) cholinergic, and 4)serotonergic neurons (p. 176. Tab;e 7-3)

What is a catecholamine?  (p. 174-175; Table 7-2)

What is the synthesis pathway for __________?  (p. 176-178)

Which neurotransmitter system is disrupted in patients with Parkinson's disease?  (p. 180)

What are some of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease?  (p. 180)

What dopamine precursor is sometimes used to treat Parkinson's disease?  (p. 180)

Name some famous people that have Parkinson's disease?  (not in text; not on exam)